APPLIED GEOPHYSICS

AGP505 (C)
Geophysical Time Series Analysis and Inversion Theory
AGP505 (C) | AGP | 1st Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

This course is designed to introduce students to the principles and methods that are used to analyze, filter and deconvolve simple digital signals and methods that can be used to extract useful geophysical information from raw datasets. The following topics are taught in the course: Time series fundamentals. Purpose of signal processing. Periodic signals. Time domain description, Continuous and discrete functions – time series, frequency domain description. Fourier Integrals and Transforms, discrete Fourier transforms, Properties of Fourier transforms. Theorems of Fourier Transform. Convolution, filtering and z-transforms, convolution in the z-domain, Convolution in the frequency-domain, deconvolution, Deconvolution in the frequency-domain. Relationship between Fourier and z-transforms Correlation functions. Cross-Correlation. Auto-Correlation, Correlation in the z-domain and as a matrix equation. Impulse Response. Laplace Transform. System Equation. Sampling: the basis of good recording and processing. One dimensional sampling in time spatial sampling, Dipoles, minimum, maximum and mixed phase, Significance of phase.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Applied Geophysics 

 

 

AGP 505 -  Geophysical Time Series Analysis and Inversion Theory

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 505

Course Title: Geophysical Time Series Analysis and Inversion Theory

No. of Units: 3

Course Duration: Three hours of theory and three hours of practicals per week for 15 weeks Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address: agp505@gmail.com

Course Webpage: http://www.fwt.futa.edu.ng/courseschedule.php?coursecode=AGP%20505

Prerequisite: MTS 202 and 301

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Dr. J. O Amigun

Room 1, Applied Geophysics Wing, 1st Floor,  SEMS Building,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035959029

Email: joamigun@futa.edu.ng

and

 

Dr. S.J. Abe

SEMS Building

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348038670332

Email: jsabe@futa.edu.ng

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to introduce students to the principles and methods that are used to analyze, filter and deconvolve simple digital signals and methods that can be used to extract useful geophysical information from raw datasets.
The following topics are taught in the course: Time series fundamentals.  Purpose of signal processing. Periodic signals.  Time domain description, Continuous and discrete functions – time series, frequency domain description.  Fourier Integrals and Transforms, discrete Fourier transforms, Properties of Fourier transforms. Theorems of Fourier Transform. Convolution, filtering and z-transforms, convolution in the z-domain, Convolution in the frequency-domain, deconvolution, Deconvolution in the frequency-domain. Relationship between Fourier and z-transforms Correlation functions. Cross-Correlation. Auto-Correlation, Correlation in the z-domain and as a matrix equation. Impulse Response. Laplace Transform. System Equation. Sampling: the basis of good recording and processing. One dimensional sampling in time spatial sampling, Dipoles, minimum, maximum and mixed phase, Significance of phase.OURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

• have a quantitative understanding of simple time-series analysis, convolution, discrete

Fourier transforms and their applications, linear filters, deconvolution and Wiener

filters.

• understand the principles of inversion and their application to simple over-determined, under-determined, and non-linear geophysical systems.

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • understand of simple time-series analysis;
  • understand Fourier transforms and their applications;
  • understand types of filters, convolution and deconvolution principles
  • understand the principles of inversion;
  • understand the application of inversion to simple over-determined, under-determined, and non-linear geophysical systems

(Skills)

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Class Attendance          10%

Assignments                  10%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with any of the instructors, indicating the reason for the absence.

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited.  You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments and Group Work: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified any of the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms and Laboratories: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted in the laboratories.

 

READING LIST

1Steven W. Smith, The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing.

3 S. K. Mitra, (2011), Digital Signal Processing, a computer-based approach, 4th edition, McGraw- Hill, New York,.

3 P.V. O’Neil, (1995), Advanced Engineering Mathematics. (Brooks/Cole, 5th ed.: 2003 or PWS, 4th ed.:

3A. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and S.H. Nawab, (1997),  Signals and Systems, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall,

3M.J. Roberts, (2004), Signals and Systems, McGraw Hill,

3J. McClellan, R. Schafer,  and M. Yoder, (2003), Signal Processing First, Prentice Hall,

 

 

Legend

1- Available on the Internet.

2- Available as Personal Collection

3- Available in local bookshops.

 

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

  • Definitions, Applications and Techniques of Time Series

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will also be documented.

 

2 & 3

  • Fourier transforms, discrete Fourier transforms,
  • Dipoles, minimum, maximum and mixed phase
  •  

 

 

4 & 5

  • Convolution, models of convolution
  • z-transforms, convolution in the z-domain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

• Relationship between Fourier and z – transforms

• Properties of Fourier transforms

 

 

7 & 8

  • Deconvolution, Convolution in the frequency-domain
  • Deconvolution in the frequency-domain,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MID-SEMESTER TEST

  1. & 10
  • Auto-correlation, cross-correlation;
  • Correlation in the z-domain and as a matrix equation;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 & 12

  • The linear problem;
  • Equi-determined systems;
  • Least-squares inversion of over-determined systems,

 

Students will be divided into groups and given practical case studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 & 14

  • The under-determined problem, the null-space, inexact data;
    • Least-squares inversion of a dipole;
  • Wiener filters – spiking, shaping, predicting;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

REVISION

This is the week preceding the final examination. At this time, evaluation will be done to assess how far the students’ expectations for the course have been met.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGP513 (C)
Borehole Geophysics
AGP513 (C) | AGP | 1st Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

This course is designed to utilize all the surface geophysical methods in the borehole environment. It is meant to train the students in acquisition, processing and interpretation of well logs. The interpretation is also focussed to solving problems in ground water, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Applied Geophysics  

 

 

AGP 513–Borehole Geophysics 

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 513

Course Title: Borehole Geophysics 

No. of Units: 3

Course Duration: Two hours of theory and three hours of practicals per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address:Nil

Course Webpage:Nil

Prerequisite: AGP 320, AGP 308 & AGP 411

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Dr. P.A. Enikanselu

Applied Geophysics Department

Academic Building

Phone: +2348036672547

Email:  

 

Dr. Ayuk, M. A.

CERAD Building

Dept. of Applied Geophysics

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035223352

Email:ayukmike2003@yahoo.com.

 

and

Mr. Abe Sunday James

Chevron Laboratory

Dept. of Applied Geophysics

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035652409

Email:sundayabe1@yahoo.com.

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed to utilize all the surface geophysical methods in the borehole environment. It is meant to train the students in acquisition, processing and interpretation of well logs. The interpretation is also focussed to solving problems in ground water, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration.

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

  • To introduce students to various field acquisition methods in well logging. 
  • Processing of the acquired data and
  • Manual as well as computer interpretation of the acquired data.

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • Set up a borehole acquisition system and acquire the relevant data.
  • The student will have a good knowledge of the various types of logs used for interpretation. 
  • Interpret composite logs.

(Skills)

  • Generation of base map for the survey area and acquiring data.
  • Understanding of the field acquisition and recording parameters of the logging equipment.

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Class Attendance          10%

Assignments                  10%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with any of the instructors, indicating the reason for the absence.  A maximum attendance of 60% is expected from a student to be eligible to sit for the examination  

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited. You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments and Group Work: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment.Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified any of the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms and Laboratories: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted in the laboratories.

 

READING LIST

Asquith and Gibson, 1982. Basic well log Analysis for Geologists. AAPG Tulsa – Oklahoma.

Asquith, G. and Krygowski, D. 2004. Basic well log analysis. 2nd Ed. AAPG methods in Exploration Series, number 16.

Bateman, 1990. Open hole log Analysis and formation Evaluation. Ed. D. H. Tessler. Texaco exploration and production Technology Division Houston Texas.

Labo, J. 1986. A Practical Introduction to borehole Geophysics Ed. S.H. mentemeler and C. A. Cleneay. SEG, Tulsa Oklahoma.

Rider, M. 1996. The geological interpretation of well logs. 2nd ed. Whittles publishing, Scotland.

Schlumberger, 1991. Log interpretation principles/applications. Schlumberger Educational services, Houston, Texas.

Schlumberger, 1994. Log interpretation charts. Schlumberger wireline and Testing. Houston, Texas.

Western Atlas, 1992. Introduction to wireline log Analysis: Western Atlas international, Houston Texas

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

Introduction and Course Overview

  1. istorical development of borehole geophysics Types of wells drilled in the search for oil and gas (Straight, Deviated and Horizontal Wells).
  2. dvantages and disadvantages of the wells.

 

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will also be documented.

 

2 & 3

  1. ypes of drilling muds and their composition
  2. unctions of drilling muds
  3. ross sectional view of the borehole environment and parameters measured.

 

Effects of drilling muds on the borehole environment and logging equipment.

 

4 & 5

  1. lassification of geophysical wireline logs e.g lithology logs, resistivity logs, porosity logs and structural logs.
  2. asic theory of well logs and their applications.

 

Emphasis will be given to how logs are used for exploration of groundwater, solid mineral deposits, pollution studies and hydrocarbons.

 

 

 

 

6

  1. ithology logs
  • spontaneous potential
  • gamma ray and natural gamma ray spectrometry log
  • Auxiliary log e.g calliper log.

Identification of lithologies from the logs   

7 & 8

  1. esistivity logs and their classification
  • Induction logs: E.g. induction logs 5FF40, induction log 6FF40, dual induction log and phasor induction.
  • Electrode logs: e.g. Long normal, Lateral log ,Laterolog 3 and Laterology 7
  • Micro-resistivity devices:e.g Microlog, Microlaterolog, Proximity log and Microspherically focused log.

 

 

 

 

Fluid identification( gas, oil and water)

 

 

 

 

 

Play a complementary role to the deep resistivity measuring devices.

 

 

9 & 10

Porosity Logs

  • Density log
  • Neutron log
  • Sonic log

Determination of void spaces of rock materials and differentiation of fluid types.

 

 

 

11 & 12

Structural logs

  • Caliper log
  • Borehole gravimeter log
  • Dipmeter log
  • Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) log
  • Formation microimager log
  • Circumferential borehole imaging log

Determination of post- depositional structures such as joints, faults/ fractures, dip of bedding planes and thin beds    

 

 

 

13 & 14

Interpretation of well logs 

  1. Manual interpretation of logs
  • Lithologic interpretation
  • Identification of reservoirs and non-reservoirs
  • Identification of fluid types
  • Well log correlation
  • Computation of relevant petrophysical parameters of the reservoir rocks: e.g. porosity, water and hydrocarbon saturations, volume of shale, permeability etc.
  1. Work station/computer interpretation of logs

Use of relevant software such as Petrel, Geolog for well log interpretation.

Students are expected to interpret well log data manually as well as using computer based software. 

 

15

  1. evision and examination.

 

This is the week preceding the final examination. At this time, evaluation will be done to assess how far the students have understood the course.

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGP502 (C)
Petroleum Geophysics Risk Analysis
AGP502 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

This course is designed primarily for geoscience students to provide an overview of the methods used to quantify the risks and uncertainties defined by a geologic evaluation. The course will present geosciences students with a ways of translating prospect evaluations into probabilities of hydrocarbon volumes. It is also designed to address the following: What are risk and uncertainty? Types and causes of risk and uncertainties in exploration and production business; Identification of risks and uncertainties in exploration project; Risk elements and associated uncertainties; Methods of calculating prospect resources. Assessment of risk and uncertainties in reservoir potential estimates; risks management Methods; Exploration uncertainty management; Case studies.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Applied Geophysics 

 

 

AGP 502 -  Risk Analysis in Petroleum Geophysics

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 502

Course Title: Petroleum Geophysics Risk Analysis

No. of Units: 1

Course Duration: One hour of theory per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address: agp502@gmail.com

Course Webpage: http://www.fwt.futa.edu.ng/courseschedule.php?coursecode=AGP%20502

Prerequisite: NIL

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Prof.  M. I. Oladapo

1st FLOOR SEMS PHASE 1Building,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348034748381

Email: mioladapo@futa.edu.ng

 

 and

Dr. M. A. Ayuk

Ground Floor (AGP WING) SEMS PHASE II BUILDING,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035223352

Email: maayuk@futa.edu.ng

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is designed primarily for geoscience students to provide an overview of the methods used to quantify the risks and uncertainties defined by a geologic evaluation. The course will present geosciences students with a ways of translating  prospect evaluations into probabilities of hydrocarbon volumes. It is also designed to address the following: What are risk and uncertainty? Types and causes of risk and uncertainties in exploration and production business; Identification of risks and uncertainties in exploration project; Risk elements and associated uncertainties; Methods of calculating prospect resources.  Assessment of risk and uncertainties in reservoir potential estimates; risks management Methods; Exploration uncertainty management; Case studies.

 

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

  • Introduce students to methods of quantifying the risks and uncertainties defined by a geologic evaluation and assessing ultimate recoveries, production profiles.
  • provide students with opportunities to quantify the risks and uncertainties with real data set, and suggest uncertainty management method(s).

 

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • identify specific risks related to individual petroleum assets;
  • understand and quantify the risks and uncertainties;
  •  understand how risks can be managed effectively;
  • Evaluate prospect resources;

(Skills)

  • use the available software such as Petrel and Kingdom suite to perform prospect evaluation;
  • carry out risk analysis with Microsoft Excel and other available geosciences’ software;

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Class Attendance          10%

Assignments                  10%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with any of the instructors, indicating the reason for the absence.

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited.  You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments and Group Work: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified any of the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms and Laboratories: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted in the laboratories.

 

READING LIST

1Koller, G., 2005, Risk assessment and decision making in business and industry, a practical guide, 2d ed.: Boca Raton, Florida, Chapman and Hall, 352 p.

 

2 Campbell Jr., J. M., J. M. Campbell Sr., and R. A. Campbell, 2001, Analyzing and managing     

risky investments: Norman, Oklahoma, John M. Campbell Publishing, 486 p.

 

3 Kaufman, G. M., 1963, Statistical decision and related techniques in oil and gas exploration, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 307 p.

 

 1Megill, R. E., 1984, An introduction to exploration risk analysis, 2d ed., Tulsa, Oklahoma, PennWell Publishing Co., 273 p.

 

 

Legend

1- Available on the Internet.

2- Available as Personal Collection

3- Available in local bookshops.

 

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

What are risk and uncertainty? Types and causes of risk and uncertainties in exploration and production business

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will also be documented.

 

2 & 3

 Identification of risks and uncertainties in exploration project; Risk elements and associated uncertainties

  • Identification of  risk factors
  • Calculation or estimation of risk impact on the performance metric.
  • Estimation of the probability of occurrence of assigned values for the risk factors.

 

 

4 & 5

Volumetric estimation techniques

  • Methods for Calculating the Size of Exploration Prospects
  • Deterministic Volumetrics
  • Probabilistic Volumetrics
  • Recoverable Resource Estimations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

  • Assessment of risk and uncertainties in reservoir potential estimates

 

7 & 8

  • Assessment of risk and uncertainties in reservoir potential estimates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MID-SEMESTER TEST

9 & 10

  • Risks management  Methods;
  • Exploration uncertainty management;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 & 12

  • Case studies

Students will be divided into groups and given practical case studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 & 14

  • Case studies

 

Students will be divided into groups and given practical case studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

REVISION

This is the week preceding the final examination. At this time, evaluation will be done to assess how far the students’ expectations for the course have been met.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGP504 (C)
Groundwater Geophysics
AGP504 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

This course is an Applied Geophysical course; designed primarily for students in Applied Geophysics. However, it also meets the need of students in the fields of Geosciences, as a course that provides hands-on training in the applicability of some geophysical methods in groundwater exploration and development in all geological terrain. The course generally involved teaching in groundwater occurrence and movement, Aquifers-types and characteristics. Geophysical methods applied in groundwater exploration, Aquifer delineation in the Basement complex and sedimentary terrains. Mapping of geological structures that are favourable to groundwater accumulation, estimation of aquifer characteristics from surface and subsurface (borehole) geophysical data and borehole location strategy. Integrating geophysical methods in groundwater investigation: field procedures, data presentation and interpretation. Case histories as related to groundwater exploration and development in basement and sedimentary terrain will also be discussed.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Applied Geophysiscs 

 

 

AGP504 – Groundwater Geophysics

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP504

Course Title: Groundwater Geophysics

No. of Units: 3

Course Duration: Three hour per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address: AGP504@gmail.com

Course Webpage: http://www.agp.futa.edu.ng/courseschedule.php?coursecode=AGP%20504

Prerequisite: AGP312 and AGP320

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Prof. G.O. Omosuyi

1st Floor (AGP Wing), SEMS Phase 1 Building,  

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348034039043

Email: goomosuyi@futa.edu.ng

 

Dr. S. Bayode

Ground Floor (AGP Wing), SEMS Phase II Building,  

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348065098153

Email: sbayode@futa.edu.ng

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course is an Applied Geophysical course; designed primarily for students in Applied Geophysics. However, it also meets the need of students in the fields of Geosciences, as a course that provides hands-on training in the applicability of some geophysical methods in groundwater exploration and development in all geological terrain. The course generally involved teaching in groundwater occurrence and movement, Aquifers-types and characteristics. Geophysical methods applied in groundwater exploration, Aquifer delineation in the Basement complex and sedimentary terrains. Mapping of geological structures that are favourable to groundwater accumulation, estimation of aquifer characteristics from surface and subsurface (borehole) geophysical data and borehole location strategy. Integrating geophysical methods in groundwater investigation: field procedures, data presentation and interpretation. Case histories as related to groundwater exploration and development in basement and sedimentary terrain will also be discussed.

 

 

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

  • review the occurrence and movement of groundwater within a geological formation
  • review some geological terms that are related  groundwater exploration and develop[ment
  • review the theory of most geophysical methods that are applicable to groundwater exploration and development in basement and sedimentary terrain.
  •  provide students with opportunities to solve groundwater exploration and development related problem using geophysical method.

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • explain the basic principle of the applicable geophysical methods in groundwater exploration and development
  •  explain the field procedure; data acquisition, processing and interpretation of applicable geophysical method(s) in groundwater investigation.

 (Skills)

  • apply Electromagnetic (EM), Electrical Resistivity (ER) and Seismic Refraction methods in solving groundwater related problems

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Assignments                  20%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with the instructor or the head of department, indicating the reason for the absence.

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited.  You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled, failure to do this will earn the student zero for that assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted during the lecture.

 

READING LIST

4 Hari, P. P. and Sankar K. N. (1999). Schlumberger Geoelectric Sounding in Groundwater, A. A. Balkema Publisher, USA 158p.

3Charles Harvey, Groundwater Hydrology Lecture Note.

4Olorunfemi M. O. (2011), Groundwater Geophysics, department of Geology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

3Wei, M. Origin, (2012). Occurrence and Movement of Ground Water, Ground Water Resources of British Columbia.

Legend

1- Available in the University Library

2- Available in Departmental/School Libraries

3- Available on the Internet.

4- Available as Personal Collection

5- Available in local bookshops.

 

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

  • Introduction and Course Overview

 

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will be documented.

 

2

  • Development of Groundwater Resources
  • Groundwater Exploration

Important of groundwater will be discussed.

3

  • Origin of Groundwater
  • Occurrence of Groundwater

Important factors in groundwater occurrence will pointed out to students

 

4 & 5

  • Vertical Distribution of Groundwater
  • Water Table
  • Geological Groundwater Accumulation Type.

Geological formation as related to groundwater accumulation will be discussed.

 

 

6

  • Aquifer Parameters

Important parameters related to aquifer will be discuss

 

Fist home assignment

7, 8 & 9

  • The Geophysical Methods Applicable in Groundwater Exploration
  • The Secondary Geophysical Methods
  • The principal Geophysical Methods

Secondary geophysical methods as related to groundwater exploration will highlight while principal methods will be discussed in detail.

10 & 11

  • Aquifer Delineation in Basement Complex and Sedimentary Terrain.
  • Mapping of Geological Structures Favourable to Groundwater Accumulation

 

The strategy in aquifer delineation in basement and sedimentary terrain will point out to students. Mapping of major geological features favourable for groundwater accumulation will also be discussed.

 

Second home assignment

12

  • Borehole Location Strategy

Borehole location strategy is a very powerful tool for groundwater development. Students will be taught on how best a drillable point for productive borehole can be located using any of the principal geophysical methods.

13 & 14

  • Fieldwork/ Case Histories

Fieldwork for groundwater investigation will be carried out within the campus and some case studies of groundwater investigation will be discussed.

15

  • REVISION

 

 

AGP506 (C)
Special Topics and Case Histories
AGP506 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

AGP 506 SPECIAL TOPICS AND CASE HISTORIES (1 UNIT) 1  0 - 0 Topics are selected to illustrate recent advances and developments in Applied Geophysics in any of the following areas: Modelling, Time Series Analysis and Filters. Integrated geophysical methods in oil and ore prospecting. Choice of methods in a geophysical survey. Composite surveys in regional structural mapping, oil prospecting and searching for ores. Examples of combined geophysical programmes and case histories.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Applied Geophysiscs 

 

 

AGP506 – SPECIAL TOPICS AND CASE HISTORIES

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP506

Course Title: Special Topics and Case Histories

No. of Units: 1

Course Duration: One hour per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address: agp@futa.edu.ng

Course Webpage: http://www.agp.futa.edu.ng/courseschedule.php?coursecode=AGP%20506

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Dr. K.A. Mogaji

1st Floor (AGP Wing), SEMS Phase I Building,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348106519011

Email: kamogaji@futa.edu.ng

and

 

Dr. I.A. Adeyemo

Ground Floor (AGP Wing), SEMS Phase II Building,

Federal University of Technology,

Phone: +2348060042770

Email: iaadeyemo@futa.edu.ng

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

AGP 506     SPECIAL TOPICS AND CASE HISTORIES   (1 UNIT) 1 – 0 - 0

Topics are selected to illustrate recent advances and developments in Applied Geophysics in any of the following areas: Modelling, Time Series Analysis and Filters. Integrated geophysical methods in oil and ore prospecting. Choice of methods in a geophysical survey. Composite surveys in regional structural mapping, oil prospecting and searching for ores. Examples of combined geophysical programmes and case histories.

 

 

 

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

  • Review the ingredients for self-reliance using geophysical exploration methods
  • Review mathematical concepts that are related to computer programming in geophysics using existing algorithms
  • Review the theoretical background of some geophysical problems with a view to applying it to solving advance topics
  • Introduce students to opportunities available in oil, gas and mineral industries through solutions to geophysical problems.

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge-based)

  • explain the basic principle(s) of the applicable geophysical methods in Dar Zarrouk parameters to be used in compressible layers and in drainage. 
  • explain the field procedure; data acquisition, processing and interpretation of applicable geophysical techniques(s) in dam-site investigation.

 

(Skills)

Practise and solve some problems in Dam-site investigation, delineate compressible and

            draining layers and be trainable in velocity analysis with some measure of competence. 

  • Apply simple scintillometers & spectrometers and analyse elementary data in radioactive materials exploration.
  • Use the computer to determine the value of absolute resisitivity from well data.

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Assignments                  20%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each student’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or any other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with the instructor or the head of department, indicating the reason(s) for his/her absence.

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited.  No student is allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled, failure to do this will earn the student zero for that assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted during the lecture.

READING LIST

REFERENCES

3BERTRAND Y., 1967, La prospection Electric Appliquee aux Problemes des Ponts et Chausses. Bulletin de Liaison des Laboratoires Routiers Ministere de l’equipment; 58, bd Lefebvre, Paris - XVe

3FLATHE, H., 1955. A practical method of calculating geoelectrical model graphs for horizontally stratified media. Geophysical Prospecting, 3: 268-294.

3GHOSH, D.P. 1971. Inverse filter coefficients for the computation of apparent resistivity standard curves for a horizontally stratified earth. Geophysical prospecting, 19:  755-765.

3KOEFOED, O., 1970.  A fast method for determining layer distribution from the raised kernel function, Geophysical Prospecting, 18: 564-570.

3TSOKAS,G.N. and A. Ch. Rocca., 1986. Geophysical Prospecting at archaeological sites with some examples from northern Greece First Break vol.4 No. 8.

3KUNETZ, G., ROCROI, J.P., 1970.  Traitement automatique des Sondages electriques. Geophysical Prospecting 18 (1): 157-198.

4-OJO, J.S., 1979.  Etude Des donnees de Sondage electrique Par Un Programme Ordinateur Base Sur La Methode de Convolution. Doctorat de 3e Cycle; Universite de Bordeaux, Talence, France.

3Ojo, J.S. T.A. Ayangbesan, and M.O. Olorunfemi, 1990: Geophysical survey of a dam-site – A Case Study. Journal of Mining and Geology; vol.26, No. 2.

4Ojo, J. S.: Guidelines for the establishment of gamma-ray spectrometer calibration facilities in Nigeria: Geological survey of Canada, 1982

1Ojo, J.S, Measurement of Stripping Ratios Of Two Gamma-Ray Spectrometers    Systems, Jour of Mining & Geol, 1995, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp 147-150.

 

Legend

1- Available in the University Library

2- Available in Departmental/School Libraries

3- Available on the Internet.

4- Available as Personal Collection

5- Available in local bookshops.

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

Introduction and Course Overview

 

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will be enunciated and documented.

 

 2

 

Geophysical survey of a dam site: A case study    

Importance of pre-construction dam site investigation will be discussed.

3

Computation of Dar Zarrouk parameter S and geophysical study of Compressible layers

Delineation of compressible layers will be discussed.

4

Computation of Dar Zarrouk parameter T and geophysical study of Zones of drainage.

Delineation of draining layers will be discussed.

First home assignment

 

 

5

Computer programming for depth sounding data interpretations for 3- and 4- layer earth

Elements required for the design of a 3-&4-layer terrain are discussed and a developed program is used with given input parameters.

6 & 7

A generalized computer programming for depth sounding data interpretations

Elements required for the design of an N-layer terrain are discussed and a developed program is used with given input parameters in SLB array.

8

Geophysical prospecting at archaeological sites.

Use of magnetic and gravity measurements is exemplified with archaeological studies.

  1.  11

 9&10

 

Choice of Seismic Velocities in depth mapping

 

Velocity scanning is a powerful tool in Oil & Gas industry. Various seismic velocities for mapping will be discussed here

Second home assignment

11

Measurement of Stripping Ratios Of Two Gamma Ray Spectrometers Systems.

Stripping ratio is a mining terminology. Possible interference of gamma radiation in neighbouring windows is discussed here.

12

Guidelines for the establishment of gamma-ray spectrometer calibration facilities in Nigeria

Nigeria is yet to have an industry that is dedicated for processing/use of data from radio-active materials. The ingredients of Calibration Pads are discussed here.

 

      13

A report on the occurrence of landslide at Ogbagi, Akoko, 2007

Land slide is distinguished here from tremor (minor earthquake).

 

14& 15

 

REVISION

Revision in form of problem-solving is embarked upon for two weeks.  .

 

 

 

 

 

AGP510 (C)
Geophysics and Geothermal Energy
AGP510 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

The underlying principles of this course are to expose undergraduate students to the recent trends in geothermal research and exploration from the point of view of a Geophysicist.

THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE,Department of Appllied Geophysics  

 

 

AGP 510 –Geophysics and Geothermal Energy 

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 510

Course Title: Geophysics and Geothermal Energy 

No. of Units: 2

Course Duration: Two hours of theory and no practical per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address:Nil

Course Webpage:Nil

Prerequisite: AGP 202, AGP312 and PHY205

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Dr. O.A. Alagbe

1st Floor (AGP Wing) SEMS Phase I Building,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Applied Geophysics Department  

Phone: +2348034229080

Email: oaalagbe@futa.edu.ng  

 

and

 

Dr. Abe, S.J.

1st Floor (AGP Wing) SEMS Phase I Building,

 Dept. of Applied Geophysics

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035652409

Email:jsabe@futa.edu.ng

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

The underlying principles of this course are to expose undergraduate students to the recent trends in geothermal research and exploration from the point of view of a Geophysicist.

 

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are as follows:

  • Global tectonics and Geothermal energy
  • Location of the principal geothermal areas of the world
  • Determination of characteristic heat flow patterns emanating from the subsurface 
  • Heat transfer and measurement using appropriate instruments
  • Geophysical methods employed in the mapping and delineation of geothermal fields
  •  Utilisation of geothermal energy resources

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • Understand global distribution of world geothermal regions and their geology.
  • Heat transfer, measurements and utilisation
  • Renewable and non-renewable energy resources of the world.
  • Plate tectonics and heat distribution around the circum-pacific belt and mid-Atlantic ridge

(Skills)

  • Generation of base map for geothermal survey and acquisition of data.
  • Processing and interpretation of acquired data.
  • Presentation of subsurface heat flow maps and interpretation
  • Recommend appropriate site(s) for drilling

 

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Class Attendance          10%

Assignments                  10%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with any of the instructors, indicating the reason for the absence.  A maximum attendance of 60% is expected from a student to be eligible to sit for the examination  

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited. You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments and Group Work: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment.Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified any of the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms and Laboratories: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted in the laboratories.

 

READING LIST

  1. Brown, G,C and Mussett, A.E 1981. The inaccessible earth. George Allen and Unwin ltd.

 

  1. Flores, E. L., Chavez, R. E and Campos, J. O, 1998. Structure and Geothermal potential of the Laguna Salada Basin, BCN, Mexico. SEG expanded abstract.

 

  1. Gangulu, N, Spence, G. D, Chapman, N. R., and Hyndman, R. D., 1998 Heat flow and Seismic studies of Marine Gas Hydrates on the the Cascadia Margin. SEG expanded abstract.

 

  1. Gass, I.J, Smith, P.J and Wilson, Rcl 1971. Understanding the earth artemis press.

 

  1.    Gupta, H.k 2003, Energy from the oceans . Prof .C. karuna series

 

  1. Gupta, H and Roy, S. 2007  geothermal energy, An alternative resource for the 21st century.       Elservier.

 

 

  1. Hellman, M.J Ramsey, M.S 2004. Analysis of hot springs and associated deposits in Yellowstone national park using Aster and Aviris remote sensing . Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 135,page 195-219
  2. Ibrahim, R. Fauzi & A, suryadarman ,2005 The progress of geothermal energy resources activities in Indonesia. Prcoceedings of the world geothermal congressantalya turkey april 24-29.

 

  1.   MacDonald, J. and Burton, C. J., 2011. Collins internet – linked dictionary of Geology. Learning solutions, London.

 

  1. Manzella, A.1994 Geophysical methods in geothermal exploration Italian natural  research council

 

  1. Sheriff, R. E. 1991. Encyclopedic dictionary of exploration Geophysics. 3rd ed. SEG

 

  1. Tosha, T, Ishido, T. Matsushina, and Nishi.U.2OOO. self potential variation in  the yanaizu –nishiyama ; geothermal field and its interpretation by the numerical simulation in; proceeding of the world geothermal congress vol. 3,pp. 1871-1876.
  2. William, L. 1997. Fundamental of Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, pp. 178-202

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

Introduction and course overview,

Important definitions associated with the course such as; Geothermal, Geothermal energy, geothermal heat flow, geothermal gradient, geothermometry, geothermal field, geothermal reservoir, geothermal prospecting and geyser were reviewed.

Types of Energy sources, their advantages and disadvantages e.g.  non renewable energy sources (oil and gas), renewable energy sources example; solar, ocean, hydropower, geothermal and gas hydrates

 

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will also be documented.

 

2 & 3

The structure and composition of the earth. Information about the structure and composition of the earth is derived from the following: Drilled holes, mines, Igneous activity and geophysics

Seismic data and the earth interior.

 Analysis of compressional and shear waves from earthquake studies subdivides. the  earth into the following:

  1. Crust: From the surface down to the first discontinuity (mohorovicic discontinuity)
  2. Mantle: From the base of the crust to the second discontinuity (Wiechert-Guttenberg discontinuity)
  • Core: From Guttenberg’s discontinuity to the centre of the earth. The inner core is separated from the outer core by the Lehmann discontinuity.

The earth is a segregated planet comprising the crust, mantle  and core

 

 

 

 

The layering of the earth is highlighted by abrupt breaks in the seismic velocity-depth curves

4 & 5

  • Plate tectonics
  • Global seismicity
  • Lithospheric plates
  • Plate boundaries e.g. divergent, convergent and conservative

The circum-pacific and mid-Atlantic regions are areas characterised by high heat flow.

 

 

 

 

 

6

Sources of heat in the earth e.g.:

  • Heat due to slow cooling of the earth from an earlier hotter state
  • Heat generated from the decay of radioactive isotopes such as thorium (232Th ), potassium (40k) and Uranium (238U).
  • The creation of new lithosphere at oceanic ridges releases the largest fraction of the thermal energy.
  • The spreading of the sea floor releases heat in the marginal basins behind island arcs.
  • Rising plumes of magma originating deep in the mantle bring heat to the surface where they break through the oceanic or continental lithosphere at ‘‘ hotspot ‘‘ characterised by intense localised volcanic activity

 

The two important sources of internal heat of the earth are due to slow cooling of the earth from an earlier hotter state and radioactivity of radioactive isotopes.

 

    7 & 8

  • Modes of heat transfer in the earth e.g. conduction, convection and radiation.
  • Thermal properties of rocks e.g. thermal conductivity and diffusivity
  • Heat and temperature gradient analysis
  • Derivation of one and three dimensional heat conduction equations
  • Temperature estimates in some simple geological situations e.g. sphere, vertical cylinder and vertical sheet

.

 

Material medium is required for heat transfer by conduction and convection, expect radiation.

 

 

9 & 10

Geothermal systems and resources.

Types of geothermal systems:

  • Vapour-dominated geothermal fields
  • Hot water geothermal systems
  • Geopressured geothermal systems
  • Hot-dry rock geothermal systems
  • Magma

These geothermal systems are characterised by temperature variations and the fluid inside the reservoirs vary from hot water to steam.

 

 

 

11 & 12

The search for geothermal resources.

 The aims of geothermal exploration are as follows:

  •  To locate a geothermal field or low grade acquifer
  • To decide whether a field, if found is semithermal or hyperthermal
  • To decide whether a hyperthermal field if located is steam or water dominated.
  • To define closely as possible the location, area, depth and probably range of temperatures of any located field or low-grade aquifer.

Geophysical methods adopted in geothermal exploration  are;

  1. Thermal methods: involve the use of thermometers in form of the following:
  • Geothermograph
  • Amerada gauge
  • Thermocouples
  • Thermistors
  • Platinum resistance thermometers
  • Mercury maximum thermometers
  1. Electrical and electromagnetic methods
  2. Magnetic method
  3. Gravity method
  4. Seismic methods

Students will be divided into groups and assigned to carry out the various the field acquisition procedures e.g. laying out of traverses, planting geophones etc.  

 

 

 

13 & 14

  • Uses of geothermal energy
  1. Industrial uses:
  • Electricity generation
  • Chemical extraction
  • Mining and upgrading of minerals
  • Food processing etc.
  1. Domestic uses;
  • Space heating
  • Domestic hot water supplies
  • Air conditioning
  1. Farming;
  • Agriculture
  • Horticulture
  • Aquaculture
  • Animal husbandry
  1. Recreation/ tourist centres;
  • Yellowstone national park, USA
  • Geysers of Iceland

Ikogosi warm spring, Nigeria etc.

Students are expected to interprete the data acquired on the field. 

Refraction case histories relating to dam sites, building foundation, mineral exploration, ground water etc. are discussed in the class with the students. 

 

15

REVISION

This is the week preceding the final examination. At this time, evaluation will be done to assess how far the students have understood the course.

       

 

AGP516 (C)
Radiometric Prospecting Methods
AGP516 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

AGP 516 is a second semester undergraduate course at 500 level covering geophysical application of nuclear methods of exploring for deposits associated with radioactive such as Uranium, and also non-radioactive deposits associated with radioactive elements such as titanium and zirconium. The course is also suitable for students in allied discipline who is interested in understanding the industrial application of the method as well as other areas such as environmental studies and geological mapping.

AGP 516– Radiometric Prospecting Methods 

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 516

Course Title: Radiometric Prospecting Methods 

No. of Units: 2

Course Duration: Two hours of theory and three hours of practical per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address:Nil

Course Webpage:Nil

Prerequisite: PHY 201 (Elementary Modern Physics)

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Prof. G.M. Olayanju

Ground Floor (AGP Wing) SEMS Phase II Building,

Applied Geophysics Department,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348035923017

Email: gmolayanju@futa.edu.ng

and

 

Dr. A.A. Akinlalu

1st Floor (AGP Wing) SEMS Phase I Building,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348034298275

Email:aaakinlalu@futa.edu.ng.

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

AGP 516 is a second semester undergraduate course at 500 level covering geophysical application of nuclear methods of exploring for deposits associated with radioactive such as Uranium, and also non-radioactive deposits associated with radioactive elements such as titanium and zirconium. The course is also suitable for students in allied discipline who is interested in understanding the industrial application of the method as well as other areas such as environmental studies and geological mapping.

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Specific objectives of this course are to:

  1. expose the students to the industrial use of radiometric prospecting methods in the areas of oil and gas, energy generation, minerals exploration, environmental hazard monitoring as well as geological mapping;
  2. provide students basic knowledge of radiation measurements, data handling and processing, data interpretation and reporting of results obtained;
  3. introduce the students to various environments where measurements can be carried out (airborne, land, borehole, sea) and laboratory;
  4. avail the students opportunity to review practical examples of the use of gamma ray spectrometry in the monitoring and assessment of the radiation in the environment, mapping of rock boundaries and geologic features; and
  5. also help the students in developing their skills in areas of application of computer programs in handling of data inputs and outputs generation, etc.

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon completion of the course, the students are expected to acquire the following:

(Knowledge based)

  1. basic knowledge of geophysical application of radiometric prospecting techniques;
  2. understand the mode of occurrence of radioactivity from manmade or natural sources;
  3. recognise the various ways materials can respond to interactions of radioactivity from radioelements; and
  4. understand basis of geochemical analysis to mineral characterization and grade of deposits, etc.
  5.  
  1. ability to acquire and interpret radiometric data;
  2. ability to determine abundance of radioelements in ores;
  3. recognition of various steps in survey planning and conduct proper research involving radiation studies; and
  4. ability to write reports on specific areas of radiometric programs, etc.

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

Grading of the course shall include the following:

  1. Continuous Assessments (CA):
  1. Class work                                       15%
  2. Term papers                                               15%
  3. Tests                                                            10%

Total sum of CA40%

  1. Final Examination                                               60%
  2.  

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Mode of Teaching and Leaning

Lectures shall be held 2 hours consecutively in two sessions per week in four months duration of lecture period, during which students shall be engaged in class works, quiz and debates. Term papers shall be written by students, while at least 2 tests shall be conducted to evaluate understanding of the subject matter by the students. Other aspect of learning process shall involve web search on special case studies and review of such cases in order to understanding practical usage of the method. Lectures end two weeks before semester examination.

 

  1. Attendance

It is expected that every students will take the attendance of lectures as paramount necessity and participate in all class work activities. As part of the perquisite and a matter of University regulation every student must certify 60% attendance in the class to be eligible to write the final examination in the course. Any case of illness or unavoidable absence in the class must be reported to any of the instructors of the course beforehand either in writing or verbally. There shall be no condonation of truancy.

 

 

  1. Academic Integrity:

Students should endeavour to maintain high standard of academic moral integrity and honest practices. Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations or other academic performances are prohibited.You are not allow to make copies of another person’s works or make parts of it as yours without proper referencing, which amounts to plagiarism.

As a guide to more information on plagiarism and good academic conducts, students can visit

All cases of academic dishonesty shall be reported to the University management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with guidelines for handling students’ misconducts as spelt out in the students’ handbook.

 

  1. Assignment and Group Work:

Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled by the instructors. Failure to submit an assignment at the stipulated time will lead to award of zero for the defaulter in the respective assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has given prior notification will submission of assignment or makeup assignment will be permitted.

 

  1. Code of Conducts:

As a matter of serious moral necessity, students must ensure that handsets or cell phones are switched off during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, charting, pinging, watching of videos, etc) while lecture is going on. Chewing of gums, sweets or food shall be considered as great violation of lecture decorum, while offender will be sent out of the lecture room for that particular lecture and all assignments for the day cancelled.

 

  1. Lecture Time:

2: 00 PM. – 4:00 PM (Tuesdays)

READING LIST

  1. References and Texts

1,5 Milsom, J. (2003).  Field Geophysics,  3rd Edition; ‘The Geological Field Guide Series’.  John Wiley & Sons Ltd. West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England, 232 pp.

5 Keary, P., Brooks, M., and Hill, A. (2002).  An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration.  Blackwell Science Ltd.  London. 262 pp.

1,5 Van Blaricom, R. 1992: Practical Geophysics II, 2nd Edition. Northwest Mining Association, USA, 570 pp.

2,4,5 Telford, WSchlumberger, 1994. Log interpretation charts. Schlumberger wireline and Testing. Houston, Texas.

Western Atlas, 1992. Introduction to wireline log Analysis: Western Atlas international, Houston Texas

1-Available in the University Library;

 2- Available in the Departmental/School Library;

 3-Available on the Internet;

4-Available as Personal Collection;

 5-Available in the local bookshops or through online transaction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Module

Course Content

Time Duration

Remarks

1

1

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of Radioactivity

2 hrs

Class Work 1

 

 

2

  • Constituents of an Atom
    • Nucleus
    • Neutron
    • Electron

2 hrs

Quiz 1

2

3

  • Principle of radioactivity
    • Nuclear Disintegrations

2 hrs

Quiz 2

 

4

  • Principle of radioactivity
    • Radioactive Decay Processes
  • Radioactive units

2 hrs

Class work 2

3

5

  • Physical basis of Gamma ray method

2 hrs

Class work 3

 

 

6

  • Radioactivity of the Earth Crust

2 hrs

Quiz 3

4

 

Revision & CA-7

 

 Term Paper 1

5

7

  • Radiometric Exploration Methods

2 hrs

Class work 4

 

 

8

  • Airborne, Car-borne and ground gamma-ray surveys

2 hrs

Quiz 4

6

9

  • Radiometric Assaying

2 hrs

Class work 5

Quiz 5

7

10

  • Use of radiometric methods in exploration of radioactive and non-radioactive ores

4 hrs

Class work 6

Quiz 6

8

 

Revision & CA-14

 

 Test 1

9

11

  • Gamma ray measuring Instruments

4 hrs

Class work 7

Quiz 7

10

12

  • Calibration of Equipments

2 hrs

Class work 8

Quiz 8

11

 

Revision & CA-19

 

Term Paper 2

12

13

  • Field Operations

2 hrs

Quiz 9

 

14

  • Data acquisition

2 hrs

Class work 9

13

15

Case studies

4 hrs

 

14

 

Revision & CA-22

2 hrs

Take-home Assignment

15

 

Pre-Examination Test

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGP518 (C)
Electromagnetic Prospecting and Ground Penetrating Radar
AGP518 (C) | AGP | 2nd Semester |  Download Courseware PDF

Course Synopsis

This course constitutes very important exploration geophysics methodologies adopted principally in the mapping of solid minerals and specialized environmental/engineering studies. However, the course meets the training of students in hydrological/hydrogeological, archaeological and forensic studies. The focus is to impart useful skills on the students in order to enhance their understanding of exploration geophysics technology and prepare them for specialised applications to be encountered in practice and make them fit into exploration crew in any part of the world. Topics to be covered include a review of EM theory; Description of EM fields; Combinations of EM fields; Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Applications of EM and GPR.

 

 

 

 

 

AGP 518 – Electromagnetic Prospecting and Ground Penetrating Radar

COURSE PARTICULARS

Course Code: AGP 518

Course Title: Electromagnetic Prospecting and Ground Penetrating Radar

No. of Units: 3

Course Duration: Two hours of theory and three hours of practicals per week for 15 weeks.

Status: Compulsory

Course Email Address: agp518@gmail.com

Course Webpage: http://www.agp.futa.edu.ng/courseschedule.php?coursecode=AGP%20204

Prerequisite: NIL

 

COURSE INSTRUCTORS

Dr. O. J. Akintorinwa

Ground Floor (MCS Wing) SEMS Phase I,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2348034968613

Email: ojakintorinwa@futa.edu.ng

 

 and

Dr. J.N. Ogunbo

1st Floor (MST WING) SEMS Phase II,

Dept. of Applied Geophysics,

Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Phone: +2347017835155

Email: jnogunbo@futa.edu.ng

 

 

COURSE DESCRIPTION

This course constitutes very important exploration geophysics methodologies adopted principally in the mapping of solid minerals and specialized environmental/engineering studies. However, the course meets the training of students in hydrological/hydrogeological, archaeological and forensic studies. The focus is to impart useful skills on the students in order to enhance their understanding of exploration geophysics technology and prepare them for specialised applications to be encountered in practice and make them fit into exploration crew in any part of the world. Topics to be covered include a review of EM theory; Description of EM fields; Combinations of EM fields; Principles of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Applications of EM and GPR.

 

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this course are to:

  • introduce students to theory and practical utilization of EM and GPR methods; and
  • provide students with opportunities to develop basic data acquisition, processing and interpretation  skills with respect to enabling them undertake exploration geophysics projects using EM and GPR methods.

 

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES / COMPETENCIES

Upon successful completion of this course, the student should be able to:

(Knowledge based)

  • understand the theory and applications of the EM and GPR methods of geophysics exploration;
  • determine the EM field and GPR frequency appropriate for any exploration scheme;
  • undertake the planning and field design of geophysical exploration scheme involving EM and GPR methods;
  • Serve in Advisory capacity on the economic viability or otherwise of a prospect.

(Skills)

  • Effectively implement EM exploration programme for solid minerals involving field data acquisition, data processing and interpretation;
  • Undertake specialized foundation engineering studies for hydraulic structures, highways, airport runways;
  • Undertake specialized environmental pollution studies of industrial effluent, hydrocarbon spill, leachate infiltration occasioned by landfills and refuse dumps using combined EM and GPR methods.
  • Undertake specialized regional/local hydrological and groundwater studies;
  • Undertake airborne and marine exploration schemes utilizing the EM method.
  • Undertake advance research studies in EM and GPR methodologies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

GRADING SYSTEM FOR THE COURSE

This course will be graded as follows:

Assignments                  20%

Test(s)                            20%

Final Examination         60%

TOTAL                                    100%

 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Attendance: It is expected that every student will be in class for lectures and also participate in all practical exercises. Attendance records will be kept and used to determine each person’s qualification to sit for the final examination. In case of illness or other unavoidable cause of absence, the student must communicate as soon as possible with any of the instructors, indicating the reason for the absence.

Academic Integrity: Violations of academic integrity, including dishonesty in assignments, examinations, or other academic performances are prohibited.  You are not allowed to make copies of another person’s work and submit it as your own; that is plagiarism. All cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the University Management for appropriate sanctions in accordance with the guidelines for handling students’ misconduct as spelt out in the Students’ Handbook.

Assignments and Group Work: Students are expected to submit assignments as scheduled. Failure to submit an assignment as at when due will earn you zero for that assignment. Only under extenuating circumstances, for which a student has notified any of the instructors in advance, will late submission of assignments be permitted.

Code of Conduct in Lecture Rooms and Laboratories: Students should turn off their cell phones during lectures. Students are prohibited from engaging in other activities (such as texting, watching videos, etc.) during lectures. Food and drinks are not permitted in the laboratories.

 

READING LIST

1Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E. and Keys, D.A. (1982). Applied Geophysics Cambridge University Press 860p.

2Reynolds, J. M.: An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, Wiley, 1998.

2Kearey, P., Brooks, M.: An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration, Blackwell, 2002

4Dietrich, P.: Introduction to Applied Geophysics, Script, Sept. 2002

4Vogelsang, D.: Environmental Geophysics, A Practical Guide, Springer Verlag, 1995

4Wilsom, J.: Field Geophysics, Wiley,1989

 

Legend

1- Available in the University Library

2- Available in Departmental/School Libraries

3- Available on the Internet.

4- Available as Personal Collection

5- Available in local bookshops.

 

 

COURSE OUTLINE

Week

Topic

Remarks

1

Introduction and Course Overview

Classification of electromagnetic (EM) methods

During this first class, the expectation of the students from the course will also be documented.

 

2

Applications of EM method

  • Primary Applications
  • Secondary Applications

Students are sensitized to the applications of EM method in various spheres of activity.

 

3 & 4

EM Theory

  • Description of EM fields
  • Biot-Savart Law
  • Straight Line Wire
  • Rectangular Loop
  • Circular Loop
  • Vertical Wire

Students are taken through the theory of electromagnetism. Maxwell’s equations are revisited. Magnetic vector potential is defined. Various EM fields are described for students to understand the generation, propagation and attenuation of alternating magnetic fields. Students are also taught how alternating magnetic fields can be initiated by various current configurations and attenuated depending on their frequency and the permeability of the medium of propagation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 & 6

Combinations of EM fields.

  • Phase Difference
  • Elliptic Polarization
  • Mutual Inductances in EM
  • Conductor Response

 

Students are lectured on the intricacies involved in the interaction of EM fields.

7 & 8

EM Measurements

  • Polarization Ellipse
  • Intensity measurement
  • Dip Angle measurement
  • Measurement of phase component

 

 

Students are taught the various EM measurement classifications and the field parameters of interest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MID-SEMESTER TEST

9 & 10

Airborne EM Survey + Ground EM Field Procedure

  • Airborne EM
  • Quadrature Airborne Method
  • Long wire Airborne EM
  • Airborne Phase component
  • Data processing and Interpretation
  • EM Data Presentation
  • Applications of EM methods

 

Students will be taught the air adaptation of the various EM fields for rapid EM exploration scheme.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 & 12

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

  • Application of radio wave methods to rock investigation
  • Attributes of GPR
  • Instrumentation
  • Field Procedure, Data Acquisition, Processing, Interpretation & Presentation

 

Students will be introduced to GPR (new nanotechnology exploration method) and taught the principles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 & 14

Ground Penetrating radar

  • Applications of GPR
  • GPR Case Histories

 

Specialized applications of GPR in hydrogeology, engineering, environmental, forensic and archaeological investigations will be demonstrated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

REVISION

This is the week preceding the final examination. At this time, evaluation will be done to assess how far the students’ expectations for the course have been met.